STAtistics / Mr. Hansen 
Name: _________________________ 
The
“MustPass” Quiz
(Doubles as a review for the AP examination. A partial
answer key and tote board are
available.)

Instructions: Please learn how to answer each of the following questions in your
own words. “Canned” answers will not earn full credit. You may choose to take
this quiz orally or in writing, but in either event, a random sampling of
questions will be used. Everyone must pass this quiz on or before the last
day of classes. 


1.* 
What is a statistic? Give
several examples. 


2.* 
What is a parameter? Give
several examples. 


3.* 
What alternate meaning does
the word parameter have in other
mathematical disciplines? 


4. 
What are the parameters of
a uniform distribution? a normal distribution? a binomial distribution? a
geometric distribution? a t
distribution? a distribution? 


5. 
Describe how to recognize
uniform, normal, binomial, geometric, t,
and distributions. 


6. 
Define range and describe how to find it. 


7. 
Define IQR and describe how to find it. 


8. 
Describe how to find
outliers 
(a) 
in a column of data; 


(b) 
in a regression setting. 


9. 
In regression, what names
are given to the x and y variables? 


10. 
What does MSE mean? Is it a
synonym for variance? 


11. 
What does s.d. measure, and
how is it computed? 


12. 
What special geometric
meaning does s.d. have in a normal distribution? 


13. 
What is skewness? Give two
examples of different ways to detect skewness. 


14. 
How does one recognize lack
of normality? 


15.* 
What is the most common
type of regression? 


16. 
Which is usually of greater
interest, the LSRL slope or the LSRL yintercept?
Why? 


17. 
What name do we give to r? What does r mean? How do we compute r? 


18. 
What name do we give to r^{2}? What does r^{2} mean? 


19. 
Is r affected by choice of units (e.g., mm, cm, inches, feet,
lightyears)? How about b_{0}
and b_{1}? 


20. 
Is r affected by choice of which variable is x and which is y? How
about b_{0} and b_{1}? 


21. 
How do we typically compute
b_{0} and b_{1}? What other ways are
there? 


22. 
Describe a few interesting
properties of the LSRL. 


23. 
What is a residual? How does one make a residual plot? If a residual plot for a LSRL model has residuals on the y axis, what variable goes on the x axis? 


24. 
Give several examples of
“good” and “bad” residual plots and what they should be telling us. 


25. 
Tell whether the following
regressionrelated terms are synonyms: ____________ outlier and ____________
observation. If not, why not? 


26. 
Interpret b_{0} and b_{1} for a layperson. 


27. 
What do the letters r.v. mean?
Give two examples, one that is ____________ and another that is ____________
. 


28. 
If X is a(n) ____________ , then is calculated by
____________ and is known by two names: ____________ or ____________ . 


29. 
If X is a(n) ____________ , then ____________ is calculated as
probabilityweighted MSE and is indicated by either of two possible
notations: ____________ or ____________. The ____________ ____________ of
____________ equals s.d., denoted ____________ . 


30. 
The mean of a ____________
equals the ____________ of the ____________ . Is this always true? What about
for differences? 


31. 
The variance of a
____________ equals the ____________ of the ____________ . Is this always true?
What about for differences? 


32. 
The s.d. of a ____________
multiple of X equals the
____________ times ____________ . Is this always true? 


33. 
Describe how each of the
following is affected by linear transformations: r, , , IQR, range. 


34. 
What is the purpose of a z score? Under what circumstances may
one compute a z score? Describe how
to compute it and what it means. 


35. 
In probability theory, a Venn
diagram showing no overlap indicates that two ____________ are ____________
____________ . Is this term a synonym for ____________ ? If not, explain the
difference. 


36.* 
Why do we care about probability?
Is it merely of interest to casinos and misguided people who waste their
money on state lotteries? 


37. 
Explain what a ____________
distribution is. Give three examples, using the three test statistics that we
care most about in AP Statistics. 


38. 
What abbreviation is
sometimes used for the s.d. of a statistic? Why does the AP generally avoid
this term? Would they understand us if we used it? 


39.* 
What does LOLN stand for? State
it correctly and in one of the many ways in which people misconstrue it. 


40. 
What does CLT stand for?
State it correctly and in one of the many ways in which people misconstrue
it. 


41. 
In experiments, probability
arises at the end in the form of a ____________ computed from the
____________ statistic. Describe the three ______ __ ___ ________ _______ and
briefly describe how you would implement them when designing an experiment of
possible interest to you personally. 


4251 
In your own words, define
each of the following and describe how it is determined or computed. 


42. 
test statistic 


43.* 
Pvalue 


44. 
level 


45. 
P(Type I
error) 


46. 
P(Type II
error) 


47. 
power 


48. 
df 


49.* 
sampling error 


50. 
critical value 


51.* 
m.o.e. 


52. 
Explain the difference
between confidence level and confidence interval. 


53. 
Which is usually preferred:
a onetailed test or a twotailed test? When should the decision be made
regarding the type of test? What is the relevant question to consider in
determining whether to use a onetailed or twotailed test? 


54. 
Why is it usually a very
bad idea to use the word probability
in any sentence involving confidence intervals? Is it possible to make a true
statement that combines these terms? 


55. 
Can H_{0} ever be proved? Why or why not? 


56. 
Can H_{a} ever be proved? Why or why not? 


57.* 
What is meant by
statistical significance? 


58.* 
The purpose of ____________
statistics is to ___ ____________ ___ ____________ ____________ . (This is a much
more difficult and sophisticated skill than descriptive statistics, in which
we assume that any reasonably intelligent person should be able to read a
table or a graph, compute s.d., add a LSRL trend line, etc. Be sure you
explain this to people if they poohpooh your having spent a year studying
statistics. There is much more to the subject than learning about means,
modes, and medians!) 


59. 
Describe each step in the PHA(S)TPC process. 


60. 
The AP formula sheet gives
two versions of the s.e. for a 2sample t
situation (difference of ____________). Explain how to tell which one to use. 


61. 
The AP formula sheet gives
two versions of the s.e. for a 2prop. z
situation (difference of ____________). Explain how to tell which one to use. 


62. 
True or false: If there are
two columns of data in an experiment, then the situation calls for use of
2sample procedures. Explain your answer. 


63. 
Define the term bias and give several examples of
types of bias. 


64. 
It can be proved, after a
page or so of messy algebra, that s^{2}
is an unbiased estimator of . (Curiously, though, s
is not an unbiased estimator of .) Describe the two other unbiased estimators we learned
about during the year. 


65. 
Describe your thought
process when deciding upon the type of statistical test (or interval) to use
in various problems: 1sample t,
2prop. z, g.o.f., etc. 


6674 
Describe how you would
check assumptions in each of the following situations: 


66. 
1sample z (STAT TESTS 1, 7) 


67. 
1sample t (STAT TESTS 2, 8) 


68. 
2sample z (STAT TESTS 3, 9) 


69. 
2sample t (STAT TESTS 4, 0) 


70. 
1prop. z (STAT TESTS 5, A) 


71. 
2prop. z (STAT TESTS 6, B) 


72. 
g.o.f. (CSDELUXE) 


73. 
2way (CSDELUXE or
STAT TESTS C) 


74. 
LSRL ttest (STAT TESTS E) 


75. 
Give the “approved wording”
for a conclusion to a statistical test that shows significance. 


76. 
Give the “approved wording”
for a conclusion to a statistical test that does not show significance. 


77. 
Give the “approved wording”
for a conclusion to a confidence interval problem. 


78. 
Describe how to transform
an “interval format” C.I. into an “estimate m.o.e.” format. 


79. 
Describe, in general terms,
how the t statistic is calculated. 


80. 
Describe how to use the
result of #79 to get a formula for the s.e. of b_{1} that is much simpler than the one given on the AP
formula sheet. 


81.* 
Data from a small sample,
from a person’s own experience, or from a ____________ sample should usually
be dismissed on the grounds that they are ____________ . However, data from large
samples (for example, responses to online surveys or magazine subscriber
surveys) are also often worthless. Why? 


82.* 
Does the m.o.e. of a
statistic depend on the size of the population? Explain briefly, giving an
example if possible. 


83. 
Is the binomial parameter p the same as the Pvalue of a test? What symbol is commonly used as an equivalent
for 1 – p? Would the AP graders
understand this without further explanation? 


84. 
What do the letters SRS stand
for, and what is an SRS? 


85. 
Which assumption is more
important, normality (if applicable) or the assumption that data come from an
SRS? Why? 


86. 
Explain marginal and conditional
probabilities. With what data (quantitative or categorical) are marginal and
conditional probabilities usually computed? 


87.* 
What is meant by the
saying, “Statistical significance is not the same as practical significance”? 


88.* 
There is a popular saying
involving correlation (more generally, association) and causation. What is
the saying, and what does it mean? 


89.* 
How does one prove
causation? 


90.* 
Explain what is meant by
double blinding, and why it is so important in clinical trials. 


91. 
There are four types of
employees at XYZ Corp., whom we will call pitchers, catchers, infielders, and
outfielders for lack of a more creative idea. All categories of employees
have recently had large cuts in their mean salaries, and yet total payroll
costs have risen. Is such a thing possible? Explain. 


92. 
There are four types of
employees at XYZ Corp., whom we will call pitchers, catchers, infielders, and
outfielders for lack of a more creative idea. All categories of employees
have recently had large cuts in their mean salaries, and yet the overall mean salary per employee has risen. Is
such a thing possible? Explain. 


93.* 
Give several examples of ways
in which people lie with statistics. 


94.* 
Give several examples of
questions you should always ask when hearing or reading a statistic for the
first time. 


95. 
It has been said that 79.4%
of all statistics are made up on the spot, that 5 out of every 3 Americans
are weak at mathematics, that smoking is the leading cause of statistics, and
that a statistician is someone who follows an unwarranted assumption to a
foregone conclusion. Which of these flippant remarks is most unfair? 


96. 
Who coined the saying,
“There are three kinds of lies: lies, d_____d lies, and statistics”? 


97.* 
Explain how odds work. In
particular, given a probability P(A) expressed as a fraction, explain
how to compute the odds in favor of the event as well as the odds against the
event. Explain why “casino odds” never equal the mathematical odds. 


98. 
Explain the following paradox:
For a gambler to return from a casino as a winner is not rare, yet casinos
are reliably profitable. 


99. 
Is gambling rational? 


100. 
Is poker a game of chance? 


Happy 
You may delete Chebyshev’s
Theorem from your brain. You will never see it again unless you study more
advanced statistics. 